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Thread: The Articles Of Confederation

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    Default The Articles Of Confederation

    THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
    Agreed to by Congress November 15,1777;ratified and in force,
    March 1,1787
    Preamble--
    To all to whom these Presents shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the States affixed to our Names send greeting.

    Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-bay Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.

    I.
    The Stile of this Confederacy shall be

    "The United States of America".
    II.
    Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled.

    III.
    The said States hereby severally enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretense whatever.

    IV.
    The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and intercourse among the people of the different States in this Union, the free inhabitants of each of these States, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several States; and the people of each State shall free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

    If any person guilty of, or charged with, treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any State, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon demand of the Governor or executive power of the State from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the State having jurisdiction of his offense.

    Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these States to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other State.

    V.
    For the most convenient management of the general interests of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such manner as the legislatures of each State shall direct, to meet in Congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a powerreserved to each State to recall its delegates, or any of them, at any time within the year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year.

    No State shall be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members; and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees or emolument of any kind.

    Each State shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the States, and while they act as members of the committee of the States.

    In determining questions in the United States in Congress assembled, each State shall have one vote.

    Freedom of speech and debate in Congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Congress, and the members of Congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests or imprisonments, during the time of their going to and from, and attendence on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.

    VI.
    No State, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, shall send any embassy to, or receive any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any King, Prince or State; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever from any King, Prince or foreign State; nor shall the United States in Congress assembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility.

    No two or more States shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, specifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how long it shall continue.

    No State shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere with any stipulations in treaties, entered into by the United States in Congress assembled, with any King, Prince or State, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by Congress, to the courts of France and Spain.

    No vessel of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any State, except such number only, as shall be deemed necessary by the United States in Congress assembled, for the defense of such State, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any State in time of peace, except such number only, as in the judgement of the United States in Congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defense of such State; but every State shall always keep up a well-regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutered, and shall provide and constantly have ready for use, in public stores, a due number of filed pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arms, ammunition and camp equipage.

    No State shall engage in any war without the consent of the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be actually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain advice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such State, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay till the United States in Congress assembled can be consulted; nor shall any State grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in Congress assembled, and then only against the Kingdom or State and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in Congress assembled, unless such State be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in Congress assembled shall determine otherwise.

    VII.
    When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment.

    VIII.
    All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint.

    The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled.

    IX.
    The United States in Congress assembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article -- of sending and receiving ambassadors -- entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective States shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever -- of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated -- of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace -- appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies commited on the high seas and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of Congress shall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

    The United States in Congress assembled shall also be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States concerning boundary, jurisdiction or any other causes whatever; which authority shall always be exercised in the manner following. Whenever the legislative or executive authority or lawful agent of any State in controversy with another shall present a petition to Congress stating the matter in question and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by order of Congress to the legislative or executive authority of the other State in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question: but if they cannot agree, Congress shall name three persons out of each of the United States, and from the list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven, nor more than nine names as Congress shall direct, shall in the presence of Congress be drawn out by lot, and the persons whose names shall be so drawn or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, so always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: and if either party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without showing reasons, which Congress shall judge sufficient, or being present shall refuse to strike, the Congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each State, and the secretary of Congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or refusing; and the judgement and sentence of the court to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgement, which shall in like manner be final and decisive, the judgement or sentence and other proceedings being in either case transmitted to Congress, and lodged among the acts of Congress for the security of the parties concerned: provided that every commissioner, before he sits in judgement, shall take an oath to be administered by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the State, where the cause shall be tried, 'well and truly to hear and determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgement, without favor, affection or hope of reward': provided also, that no State shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.

    All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under different grants of two or more States, whose jurisdictions as they may respect such lands, and the States which passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the petition of either party to the Congress of the United States, be finally determined as near as may be in the same manner as is before presecribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different States.

    The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective States -- fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States -- regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the States, provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated -- establishing or regulating post offices from one State to another, throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office -- appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers -- appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the United States -- making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

    The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of Congress, to be denominated 'A Committee of the States', and to consist of one delegate from each State; and to appoint such other committees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the United States under their direction -- to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses -- to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmitting every half-year to the respective States an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emitted -- to build and equip a navy -- to agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each State for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such State; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each State shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men and cloath, arm and equip them in a solid-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled. But if the United States in Congress assembled shall, on consideration of circumstances judge proper that any State should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloathed, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of each State, unless the legislature of such State shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spread out in the same, in which case they shall raise, officer, cloath, arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judeg can be safely spared. And the officers and men so cloathed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in Congress assembled.

    The United States in Congress assembled shall never engage in a war, nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expenses necessary for the defense and welfare of the United States, or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of vessels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine States assent to the same: nor shall a question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of the majority of the United States in Congress assembled.

    The Congress of the United States shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the United States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each State on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegates of a State, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several States.

    X.
    The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States in Congress assembled, by the consent of the nine States, shall from time to time think expedient to vest them with; provided that no power be delegated to the said Committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine States in the Congress of the United States assembled be requisite.

    XI.
    Canada acceding to this confederation, and adjoining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine States.

    XII.
    All bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed, and debts contracted by, or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States, and the public faith are hereby solemnly pleged.

    XIII.
    Every State shall abide by the determination of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every State, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them; unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the legislatures of every State.

    And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on all questions, which by the said Confederation are submitted to them. And that the Articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the States we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

    In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.

    Agreed to by Congress 15 November 1777 In force after ratification by Maryland, 1 March 1781
    On the part and behalf of the State of New Hampshire:
    Josiah Bartlett
    John Wentworth Junr. August 8th 1778

    On the part and behalf of The State of Massachusetts Bay:
    John Hancock
    Samuel Adams
    Elbridge Gerry
    Francis Dana
    James Lovell
    Samuel Holten

    On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations:
    William Ellery
    Henry Marchant
    John Collins

    On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut:
    Roger Sherman
    Samuel Huntington
    Oliver Wolcott
    Titus Hosmer
    Andrew Adams

    On the Part and Behalf of the State of New York:
    James Duane
    Francis Lewis
    Wm Duer
    Gouv Morris

    On the Part and in Behalf of the State of New Jersey, November 26, 1778.
    Jno Witherspoon
    Nath. Scudder

    On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania:
    Robt Morris
    Daniel Roberdeau
    John Bayard Smith
    William Clingan
    Joseph Reed 22nd July 1778

    On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware:
    Tho Mckean February 12, 1779
    John Dickinson May 5th 1779
    Nicholas Van Dyke

    On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland:
    John Hanson March 1 1781
    Daniel Carroll

    On the Part and Behalf of the State of Virginia:
    Richard Henry Lee
    John Banister
    Thomas Adams
    Jno Harvie
    Francis Lightfoot Lee

    On the part and Behalf of the State of No Carolina:
    John Penn July 21st 1778
    Corns Harnett
    Jno Williams

    On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina:
    Henry Laurens
    William Henry Drayton
    Jno Mathews
    Richd Hutson
    Thos Heyward Junr

    On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia:
    Jno Walton 24th July 1778
    Edwd Telfair
    Edwd Langworthy
    When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty. --Thomas Jefferson
    ________________

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    Bit of trivia. Who was the first President of the USA?

    Hint it wasn't Geo. Washington. He was a signer of the Articles of Confederation but refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it gave to much power to the General Government. An Army General from his linage was more famous than he was.
    John Quincy Adams said, "Always vote for principle, though you may vote alone, and you may cherish the sweetest reflection that your vote is never lost."

    Wealth is not multiplied by division


    BOTH POLITICIANS AND DIAPERS NEED TO BE CHANGED OFTEN AND FOR THE SAME REASON

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    President of the USA or President (presider) of the Continental Congress?

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    The Unite States of America.
    John Quincy Adams said, "Always vote for principle, though you may vote alone, and you may cherish the sweetest reflection that your vote is never lost."

    Wealth is not multiplied by division


    BOTH POLITICIANS AND DIAPERS NEED TO BE CHANGED OFTEN AND FOR THE SAME REASON

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    Some folks would say Samuel Huntington and I've heard some folks say Thomas McKean.
    When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty. --Thomas Jefferson
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    Richard Henry Lee
    John Quincy Adams said, "Always vote for principle, though you may vote alone, and you may cherish the sweetest reflection that your vote is never lost."

    Wealth is not multiplied by division


    BOTH POLITICIANS AND DIAPERS NEED TO BE CHANGED OFTEN AND FOR THE SAME REASON

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    Presidents of the Continental Congress

    The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. He was elected by the delegates to the congress. After the Articles of Confederation were adopted on March 1, 1781, the office was known as the President of the United States in Congress Assembled.

    The office of President of the Continental Congress is probably most analogous to the modern-day Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. Like the Speaker, the President of the Continental Congress was expected to refrain from participating in debate, and was expected to vote last and only if his vote would be decisive. However, unlike the Speaker, the President of the Continental Congress had no power to assign delegates to committees.

    Quote Originally Posted by patriot2980
    Some folks would say Samuel Huntington and I've heard some folks say Thomas McKean.
    • Note: Samuel Huntington ( September 28, 1779 - July 9, 1781 ) was the first to have the title (established during his term)... President of the United States in Congress Assembled. Thomas McKean was the first to be elected by the delegates to the congress after the establishment of the new title, formerly known as the President of the Continental Congress, however..... note that the office of President of the Continental Congress and/or the President of the United States in Congress Assembled is (as stated above) most analogous to the modern-day Speaker of the United States House of Representatives and are not elected to office by the electoral college as mandated by Article II of the US Constitution so as to be President of the United States.


    Peyton Randolph
    " 1st President of the Continental Congress "
    " Virginia "
    ( September 5, 1774 - October 22, 1774 - 1st Term )
    " Payton Randolph "

    Date & Place of Birth
    September, 1721, Williamsburg, Virginia
    Passed Away
    October 22, 1775, Philadelphia, Pa.
    Place of Burial
    College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia
    Parents
    John & Susannah Beverley Randolph
    Married
    Betty Harrison
    Children
    None
    When delegates first gathered in Philadelphia for the Continental Congress, they elected the former King's Attorney of Virginia as the moderator and president of their meeting. He was a propitious choice. He was a legal prodigy — having studied at the Inner Temple in London, served as his native colony's Attorney General, and tutored many of the most able men of the South at William and Mary College — including the young Patrick Henry.
    His home in Williamsburg was the gathering place for Virginia's legal and political gentry — and it remains a popular attraction in the restored colonial capital. He had served as a delegate in the Virginia House of Burgesses, and had been a commander under William Byrd in the colonial militia. He was a scholar of some renown — having begun a self-guided reading of the classics when he was thirteen.
    He served the Continental Congress as president twice. During his first term in office he was forced to retire due to poor health on October 22, 1774 and Henry Middleton ( see below ) became the second person elected to the position. He returned to the position for a few short days again on May 10, 1775 however his heath once again forced him to resign. He never lived to see independence, yet was numbered among the nation's most revered founders.


    Henry Middleton
    " 2nd President of the Continental Congress "
    South Carolina
    ( October 22, 1774 - May 10, 1775 )
    " Henry Middleton "

    Date & Place of Birth
    1717, The Oaks, near Charleston, South Carolina
    Passed Away
    June 13, 1784, Charleston, South Carolina
    Place of Burial
    Middleton Gardens, Charleston, South Carolina
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    America's second president of the Continental Congress was one of the wealthiest planters in the South, the patriarch of the most powerful families anywhere in the nation. His public spirit was evident from an early age.
    He was a member of his state's Common House from 1744-1747. During the last two years he served as the Speaker. During 1755 he was the King's Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He was a member of the South Carolina Council from 1755-1770. His valor in the War with the Cherokees during 1760-1761 earned him wide recognition throughout the colonies — and demonstrated his cool leadership abilities while under pressure.
    He was elected as a delegate to the first session of the Continental Congress and when Peyton Randolph was forced to resign the presidency, his peers immediately turned to Middleton to complete the term. He served as the fledgling coalition's president from October 22, 1774 until Randolph was able to resume his duties briefly beginning on May 10, 1775.
    Afterward, he was a member of the Congressional Council of Safety and helped to establish the young nation's policy toward the encouragement and support of education. In February 1776 he resigned his political involvements in order to prepare his family and lands for what he believed was inevitable war — but he was replaced by his son Arthur who eventually became a signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, served time as an English prisoner of war, and was twice elected Governor of his state.


    Peyton Randolph
    " 3rd President of the Continental Congress "
    " Virginia "
    ( May 10, 1775 - May 23, 1775 - 2nd Term )
    " Payton Randolph "

    See Above For All Information During His 1st Term


    John Hancock
    " 4th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Massachusetts "
    ( May 24, 1775 - October 31, 1777 - 1st Term )
    " John Hancock "

    Date & Place of Birth
    January 12, 1737, Braintree, Massachusetts
    Passed Away
    October 8, 1793, Quincy, Massachusetts
    Place of Burial
    Granary Burying Ground, Boston, Massachusetts
    Parents
    John & Mary Hawke Hancock
    Married
    Dorothy Quincy on Aug. 28, 1775 in Fairfield Conn. - ( 1744-1818 )
    Children
    Lydia - ( 1776 - 1776 )
    John George Washington - ( 1778 - Jan. 27, 1787 )
    The third president of the Continental Congress was a patriot, rebel leader, merchant who signed his name into immortality in giant strokes on the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The boldness of his signature has made it live in American minds as a perfect expression of the strength and freedom — and defiance — of the individual in the face of British tyranny.
    As President of the Continental Congress during two widely spaced terms — the first from May 24 1775 to October 30 1777 and the second from November 23, 1785 to June 5, 1786 — Hancock was the presiding officer when the members approved the Declaration of Independence. Because of his position, it was his official duty to sign the document first — but not necessarily as dramatically as he did.
    Hancock figured prominently in another historic event — the battle at Lexington British troops who fought there April 10, 1775, had known Hancock and Samuel Adams were in Lexington and had come there to capture these rebel leaders. And the two would have been captured, if they had not been warned by Paul Revere. As early as 1768, Hancock defied the British by refusing to pay customs charges on the cargo of one of his ships. One of Boston's wealthiest merchants, he was recognized by the citizens, as well as by the British, as a rebel leader — and was elected President of the first Massachusetts Provincial Congress.
    After he was chosen President of the Continental Congress in 1775, Hancock became known beyond the borders of Massachusetts, and, having served as colonel of the Massachusetts Governor's Guards he hoped to be named commander of the American forces — until John Adams nominated George Washington.
    In 1778 Hancock was commissioned Major General and took part in an unsuccessful campaign in Rhode Island. But it was as a political leader that his real distinction was earned — as the first Governor of Massachusetts, as President of Congress, and as President of the Massachusetts constitutional ratification convention. He helped win ratification in Massachusetts, gaining enough popular recognition to make him a contender for the newly created Presidency of the United States, but again he saw Washington gain the prize.
    Like his rival, George Washington, Hancock was a wealthy man who risked much for the cause of independence. He was the wealthiest New Englander supporting the patriotic cause, and, although he lacked the brilliance of John Adams or the capacity to inspire of Samuel Adams, he became one of the foremost leaders of the new nation — perhaps, in part, because he was willing to commit so much at such risk to the cause of freedom.


    Henry Laurens
    " 5th President of the Continental Congress "
    " South Carolina "
    ( November 1, 1777 - December 9, 1778 )
    " Henry Laurens "

    Date & Place of Birth
    March 6, 1724, Charleston, South Carolina
    Passed Away
    1792, "Mepkin," near Charleston, South Carolina
    Place of Burial
    Cremated
    Parents
    John & _____ Laurens
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    John
    There were others
    The only Continental Congress President ever to be held as a prisoner of war by a foreign power, Laurens was heralded after he was released as "the father of our country," by no less a personage than George Washington.
    He was of Huguenot extraction, his ancestors having come to America from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes made the Reformed faith illegal. Raised and educated for a life of mercantilism at his home in Charleston, he also had the opportunity to spend more than a year in continental travel. It was while in Europe that he began to write revolutionary pamphlets — gaining him renown as a patriot.
    He served as vice-president of South Carolina in1776. He was then elected to the Continental Congress. He succeeded John Hancock as President of the newly independent but war beleaguered United States on November 1, 1777. He served until December 9, 1778 at which time he was appointed Ambassador to the Netherlands.
    Unfortunately for the cause of the young nation, he was captured by an English warship during his cross-Atlantic voyage and was confined to the Tower of London until the end of the war. After the Battle of Yorktown, the American government regained his freedom in a dramatic prisoner exchange — Henry Laurens for Lord Cornwallis. Ever the patriot, Laurens continued to serve his nation as one of the three representatives selected to negotiate terms at the Paris Peace Conference in 1782.


    John Jay
    " 6th President of the Continental Congress "
    " New York "
    ( December 10, 1778 - September 27, 1779 )
    " John Jay "

    Date & Place of Birth
    December 12, 1745, New York, New York
    Passed Away
    May 17, 1829, Bedford, near New York, New York
    Place of Burial
    John Jay Cemetery, Rye, New York
    Parents
    Peter & Mary Anna Van Courtland Jay
    Married
    Sarah Van Brugh Livingston on April 28, 1774 - (1756 - 1802)
    Children
    Peter Augustus - ( Jan. 24, 1776 - Feb. 20, 1843)
    America's first Secretary of State, first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, one of its first ambassadors, and author of some of the celebrated Federalist Papers, Jay was a Founding Father who, by a quirk of fate, missed signing the Declaration of Independence — at the time of the vote for independence and the signing, he had temporarily left the Continental Congress to serve in New York's revolutionary legislature. Nevertheless, he was chosen by his peers to succeed Henry Laurens as President of the United States — serving a term from December 10, 1778 to September 27, 1779.
    A conservative New York lawyer who was at first against the idea of independence for the colonies, the aristocratic Jay in 1776 turned into a patriot who was willing to give the next twenty-five years of his life to help establish the new nation. During those years, he won the regard of his peers as a dedicated and accomplished statesman and a man of unwavering principle.
    In the Continental Congress Jay prepared addresses to the people of Canada and Great Britain. In New York he drafted the State constitution and served as Chief Justice during the war.
    He was President of the Continental Congress before he undertook the difficult assignment, as ambassador, of trying to gain support and funds from Spain. After helping Franklin, Jefferson, Adams, and Laurens complete peace negotiations in Paris in 1783, Jay returned to become the first Secretary of State, called "Secretary of Foreign Affairs" under the Articles of Confederation. He negotiated valuable commercial treaties with Russia and Morocco, and dealt with the continuing controversy with Britain and Spain over the southern and western boundaries of the United States.
    He proposed that America and Britain establish a joint commission to arbitrate disputes that remained after the war — a proposal which, though not adopted, influenced the government's use of arbitration and diplomacy in settling later international problems. In this post Jay felt keenly the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and was one of the first to advocate a new governmental compact. He wrote five Federalist Papers supporting the Constitution, and he was a leader in the New York ratification convention.
    As first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Jay made the historic decision that a State could be sued by a citizen from another State, which led to the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution. On a special mission to London he concluded the "Jay Treaty," which helped avert a renewal of hostilities with Britain but won little popular favor at home — and it is probably for this treaty that this Founding Father is best remembered.

    Quote Originally Posted by patriot2980
    Some folks would say Samuel Huntington...
    Samuel Huntington
    " 7th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Connecticut "
    ( September 28, 1779 - July 9, 1781 )
    " Samuel Huntington "

    Date & Place of Birth
    July 3, 1731, Windham, Connecticut
    Passed Away
    January 5, 1796, Norwich, Connecticut
    Place of Burial
    Old Norwichtown Cemetery, Norwich, Connecticut
    Parents
    Nathaniel & _____ Huntington
    Married
    Martha Devotion
    Children
    None
    An industrious youth who mastered his studies of the law without the advantage of a school, a tutor, or a master — borrowing books and snatching opportunities to read and research between odd jobs — he was one of the greatest self-made men among the Founders. He was also one of the greatest legal minds of the age — all the more remarkable for his lack of advantage as a youth.
    In 1764, in recognition of his obvious abilities and initiative, he was elected to the General Assembly of Connecticut. The next year he was chosen to serve on the Executive Council. In 1774 he was appointed Associate Judge of the Superior Court and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress, was acknowledged to be a legal scholar of some respect. He served in Congress for five consecutive terms, during the last of which he was elected President. He served in that off ice from September 28, 1779 until ill health forced him to resign on July 9, 1781.
    He returned to his home in Connecticut — and as he recuperated, he accepted more Counciliar and Bench duties. He again took his seat in Congress in 1783, but left it to become Chief Justice of his state's Superior Court. He was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1785 and Governor in 1786. According to John Jay, he was "the most precisely trained Christian jurists ever to serve his country."

    Quote Originally Posted by patriot2980
    ...and I've heard some folks say Thomas McKean.
    Thomas McKean
    " 8th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Delaware "
    ( July 10, 1781 - November 4, 1781 )
    " Thomas McKean "

    Date & Place of Birth
    March 19, 1734, New London, Chester County, Pennsylvania
    Passed Away
    June 24, 1817, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Place of Burial
    Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pa.
    Parents
    William & Letitia Finney McKean
    Married (1st)
    Mary Borden - in 1763 - ( ?? - 1773 )
    Children with Mary
    Joseph - ( 1764-1826 )
    Robert - ( 1766-1802 )
    Elizabeth - ( 1767-1811 )
    Letitia - ( 1769-1845 )
    Mary - ( 1771-1781 )
    Anne - ( 1773-1804 )
    Married (2nd)
    Sarah Armitage - in 1774
    Children with Sarah
    Sarah - ( 1777-1841 )
    Thomas, Jr. - ( 1779-1852 )
    Sophia - ( 1783-1819 )
    Maria - ( 1785-1788 )
    During his astonishingly varied fifty-year career in public life he held almost every possible position—from deputy county attorney to President of the Continental Congress. Besides signing the Declaration of Independence, he contributed significantly to the development and establishment of constitutional government in both his home state of Delaware and the nation.
    At the Stamp Act Congress he proposed the voting procedure that Congress adopted that each colony, regardless of size or population, have one vote—the practice adopted by the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation, and the principle of state equality manifest in the composition of the Senate. And as county judge in 1765, he defied the British by ordering his court to work only with documents that did not bear the hated stamps.
    In June 1776, at the Continental Congress, McKean joined with Caesar Rodney to register Delaware's approval of the Declaration of Independence, over the negative vote of the third Delaware delegate, George Read—permitting it to be "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States." And at a special Delaware convention, he drafted the constitution for that State. On September 22, 1777 he was serving as the Speaker of the House in the Delaware State General Assembly and he assumed the office of "Governor" of the State of Delaware after the British captured Delaware's 1st Governor, John McKinley. He was appointed the Chief Justice of Pennsylvania one month later on October 20, 1777.
    McKean also helped draft — and signed — the Articles of Confederation. It was during his tenure of service as President of the Continental Congress — from July 10, 1781 to November 4, 1782 — when news arrived from General Washington in October 1781 that the British had surrendered following the Battle of Yorktown.
    As Chief Justice of the supreme court of Pennsylvania, he contributed to the establishment of the legal system in that State, and, in 1787, he strongly supported the Constitution at the Pennsylvania Ratification Convention, declaring it "the best the world has yet seen."
    At sixty-five, after over forty years of public service, McKean resigned from his post as Chief Justice. A candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket in 1799, McKean was elected Governor of Pennsylvania. As Governor, he followed such a strict policy of appointing only fellow Republicans to office that he became the father of the spoils system in America. He served three tempestuous terms as Governor, completing one of the longest continuous careers of public service of any of the Founding Fathers.


    John Hanson
    " 9th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Maryland "
    ( November 5, 1781 - November 3, 1782 )
    " John Hanson "

    Date & Place of Birth
    April 3, 1715, Mulberry Grove, Charles County, Maryland
    Passed Away
    November 22, 1783, Oxon Hill, Prince George's County, Maryland
    Place of Burial
    Addison Graveyard, Oxon Hill, Maryland
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    He was the heir of one of the greatest family traditions in the colonies and became the patriarch of a long line of American patriots — his great grandfather died at Lutzen beside the great King Gustavus Aldophus of Sweden; his grandfather was one of the founders of New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware; one of his nephews was the military secretary to George Washington; another was a signer of the Declaration; still another was a signer of the Constitution; yet another was Governor of Maryland during the Revolution; and still another was a member of the first Congress; two sons were killed in action with the Continental Army; a grandson served as a member of Congress under the new Constitution; and another grandson was a Maryland Senator.
    Thus, even if Hanson had not served as President of the Continental Congress himself, he would have greatly contributed to the life of the nation through his ancestry and progeny.
    As a youngster he began a self-guided reading of classics and rather quickly became an acknowledged expert in the juridicalism of Anselm and the practical philosophy of Seneca — both of which were influential in the development of the political philosophy of the great leaders of the Reformation. It was based upon these legal and theological studies that the young planter — his farm, Mulberry Grove was just across the Potomac from Mount Vernon — began to espouse the cause of the patriots.
    In 1775 he was elected to the Provincial Legislature of Maryland. Then in 1777, he became a member of Congress where he distinguished himself as a brilliant administrator. Thus, he was elected President of the Continental Congress in 1781. He served in that office from November 5, 1781 until November 3, 1782. He was the first President of the Continental Congress to serve a full term after the full ratification of the Articles of Confederation — and like so many of the Southern and New England Founders, he was strongly opposed to the Constitution when it was first discussed. He remained a confirmed anti-federalist until his untimely death.


    Elias Boudinot
    " 10th President of the Continental Congress "
    " New Jersey "
    ( November 4, 1782 - November 3, 1783 )
    " Elias Boudinot "

    Date & Place of Birth
    May 2, 1740, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Passed Away
    October 24, 1821, Burlington, Burlington County, New Jersey
    Place of Burial
    Saint Marys Cemetery, Burlington, New Jersey
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    He did not sign the Declaration, the Articles, or the Constitution. He did not serve in the Continental Army with distinction. He was not renowned for his legal mind or his political skills. He was instead a man who spent his entire career in foreign diplomacy. He earned the respect of his fellow patriots during the dangerous days following the traitorous action of Benedict Arnold. His deft handling of relations with Canada also earned him great praise.
    After being elected to the Congress from his home state of New Jersey, he served as the new nation's Secretary for Foreign Affairs — managing the influx of aid from France, Spain, and Holland. Then in 1783 he was elected to the Presidency of the Continental Congress. He served in that office from November 4, 1782 until November 2, 1783. Like so many of the other early presidents, he was a classically trained scholar, of the Reformed faith, and an anti-federalist in political matters. He was the father and grandfather of frontiersmen — and one of his grandchildren and namesakes eventually became a leader of the Cherokee nation in its bid for independence from the sprawling expansion of the United States.


    Thomas Mifflin
    " 11th President of the Continental Congress "
    " New Jersey "
    ( November 4, 1783 - November 29, 1784 )
    " Thomas Mifflin "

    Date & Place of Birth
    January 10, 1744, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Passed Away
    January 20, 1800, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
    Place of Burial
    Trinity Lutheran Churchyard, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    By an ironic sort of providence, Thomas Mifflin served as George Washington's first aide-de-camp at the beginning of the Revolutionary War, and, when the war was over, he was the man, as President of the Continental Congress, who accepted Washington's resignation of his commission.
    In the years between, Mifflin greatly served the cause of freedom — and, apparently , his own cause — while serving as the first Quartermaster General of the Continental Army. He obtained desperately needed supplies for the new army — and was suspected of making excessive profit himself.
    Although experienced in business and successful in obtaining supplies for the war, Mifflin preferred the front lines, and he distinguished himself in military actions on Long Island and also near Philadelphia.
    Born and reared a Quaker, he was excluded from their meetings for his military activities. A controversial figure, Mifflin lost favor with Washington and was part of the Conway Cabal — a rather notorious plan to replace Washington with General Horatio Gates. And Mifflin narrowly missed court-martial action over his handling of funds by resigning his commission in 1778.
    In spite of these problems — and of repeated charges that he was a drunkard — Mifflin continued to be elected to positions of responsibility — as President and Governor of Pennsylvania, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, as well as the highest office in the land — where he served from November 3, 1783 to November 29, 1784.
    Most of Mifflin's significant contributions occurred in his earlier years — in the First and Second Continental Congresses he was firm in his stand for independence and for fighting for it, and he helped obtain both men and supplies for Washington's army in the early critical period. In 1784, as of the President of the Continental Congress, he signed the treaty with Great Britain which ended the war. Although a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, he did not make a significant contribution — beyond signing the document.
    As Governor of Pennsylvania, although he was accused of negligence, he supported improvements of roads, and reformed the State penal and judicial systems. He had gradually become sympathetic to Jefferson's principles regarding State's rights, even so, he directed the Pennsylvania militia to support the Federal tax collectors in the Whiskey Rebellion. In spite of charges of corruption, the affable Mifflin remained a popular figure. A magnetic personality and an effective speaker, he managed to hold a variety of elective offices for almost thirty years of the critical Revolutionary period.

    Quote Originally Posted by Chuck
    Bit of trivia. Who was the first President of the USA?

    Hint it wasn't Geo. Washington. He was a signer of the Articles of Confederation but refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it gave to much power to the General Government. An Army General from his linage was more famous than he was.

    Richard Henry Lee
    Richard Henry Lee
    " 12th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Virginia "
    ( November 30, 1784 - November 22, 1785 )
    " Richard Henry Lee "

    Date & Place of Birth
    January 20, 1732, Stratford Hall, Westmoreland County, Virginia
    Passed Away
    June 19, 1794, Chantilly, Westmoreland County, Virginia
    Place of Burial
    Burnt House Fields, Lee Family Estate, Coles Point, Va.
    Parents
    Thomas & Hannah Ludwell Lee
    Married (1st)
    Ann Aylett on Jan. 3, 1757 - ( 1738 - 1768 )
    Children
    Thomas - ( Oct. 20, 1758 - 1805 )
    Ludwell - ( Oct. 13, 1760 - Mar. 23, 1836 )
    Mary - ( Jul. 2, 1764 - 1795 )
    Hannah - ( 1766 - 1801 )
    Married (2nd)
    Anne Gaskins Pinckard on Jul. 12, 1768
    Children
    Anne - ( Dec. 1, 1770 - Sep. 9, 1804 )
    Henrietta - ( Dec. 10, 1773 - ca.1804 )
    Sarah - ( Dec. 27, 1775 - May 8, 1837 )
    Cassius - ( Aug. 18, 1779 - Jul. 8, 1798 )
    Francis Lightfoot - ( Jun. 18, 1782 - Apr. 13, 1850 )
    His resolution "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States," approved by the Continental Congress July 2, 1776, was the first official act of the United Colonies that set them irrevocably on the road to independence. It was not surprising that it came from Lee's pen — as early as 1768 he proposed the idea of committees of correspondence among the colonies, and in 1774 he proposed that the colonies meet in what became the Continental Congress.
    From the first, his eye was on independence. A wealthy Virginia planter whose ancestors had been granted extensive lands by King Charles II, Lee disdained the traditional aristocratic role and the aristocratic view. In the House of Burgesses he flatly denounced the practice of slavery. He saw independent America as "an asylum where the unhappy may find solace, and the persecuted repose."
    In 1764, when news of the proposed Stamp Act reached Virginia, Lee was a member of the committee of the House of Burgesses that drew up an address to the King, an official protest against such a tax. After the tax was established, Lee organized the citizens of his county into the Westmoreland Association, a group pledged to buy no British goods until the Stamp Act was repealed.
    At the First Continental Congress, Lee persuaded representatives from all the colonies to adopt this non-importation idea, leading to the formation of the Continental Association, which was one of the first steps toward union of the colonies. Lee also proposed to the First Continental Congress that a militia be organized and armed — the year before the first shots were fired at Lexington; but this and other proposals of his were considered too radical — at the time.
    Three days after Lee introduced his resolution, in June of 1776, he was appointed by Congress to the committee responsible for drafting a declaration of independence, but he was called home when his wife fell ill, and his place was taken by his young protégé, Thomas Jefferson. Thus Lee missed the chance to draft the document — though his influence greatly shaped it and he was able to return in time to sign it.
    He was elected President of the Continental Congress — serving from November 30, 1784 to November 22, 1785 when he was succeeded by the second administration of John Hancock. Elected to the Constitutional Convention, Lee refused to attend, but as a member of the Congress of the Confederation, he contributed to another great document, the Northwest Ordinance, which provided for the formation of new States from the Northwest Territory. When the completed Constitution was sent to the States for ratification, Lee opposed it as anti-democratic and anti-Christian. However, as one of Virginia's first Senators, he helped assure passage of the amendments that, he felt, corrected many of the document's gravest faults — the Bill of Rights. He was the great uncle of General Robert E. Lee and the scion of a great family tradition.


    John Hancock
    " 13th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Massachusetts "
    ( November 23, 1785 - June 5, 1786 - 2nd Term )
    " John Hancock "

    See Above For All Information During His 1st Term


    Nathaniel Gorham
    " 14th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Massachusetts "
    ( June 6, 1786 - February 1, 1787 )
    " Nathaniel Gorham "

    Date & Place of Birth
    May 27, 1738, Charlestown, Massachusetts
    Passed Away
    June 11, 1796, Charlestown, Massachusetts
    Place of Burial
    Phipps Street Cemetery, Boston, Massachusetts
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    Another self-made man, Gorham was one of the many successful Boston merchants who risked all he had for the cause of freedom.
    He was first elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1771. His honesty and integrity won his acclaim and was thus among the first delegates chose to serve in the Continental Congress. He remained in public service throughout the war and into the Constitutional period, though his greatest contribution was his call for a stronger central government. But even though he was an avid federalist, he did not believe that the union could — or even should — be maintained peaceably for more than a hundred years.
    He was convinced that eventually, in order to avoid civil or cultural war, smaller regional interests should pursue an independent course. His support of a new constitution was rooted more in pragmatism than ideology. When John Hancock was unable to complete his second term as President of the Continental Congress, Gorham was elected to succeed him — serving from June 6, 1786 to February 1, 1787.
    It was during this time that the Congress actually entertained the idea of asking Prince Henry — the brother of Frederick II of Prussia — and Bonnie Prince Charlie — the leader of the ill-fated Scottish Jacobite Rising and heir of the Stuart royal line — to consider the possibility of establishing a constitutional monarch in America. It was a plan that had much to recommend it but eventually the advocates of republicanism held the day. During the final years of his life, Gorham was concerned with several speculative land deals which nearly cost him his entire fortune.


    Arthur St. Clair
    " 15th President of the Continental Congress "
    " Pennsylvania "
    ( February 2, 1787 - Janaury 21, 1788 )
    " Arthur St. Clair "

    Date & Place of Birth
    March 23, 1734, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland
    Passed Away
    August 31, 1818, Hermitage, near Youngstown, Pennsylvania
    Place of Burial
    Old St. Clair Cemetery, Greensburg, Pennsylvania
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown
    Born and educated in Edinburgh, Scotland during the tumultuous days of the final Jacobite Rising and the Tartan Suppression, St. Clair was the only President of the Continental Congress born and bred on foreign soil.
    Though most of his family and friends abandoned their devastated homeland in the years following the Battle of Culloden — after which nearly a third of the land was depopulated through emigration to America — he stayed behind to learn the ways of the hated Hanoverian English in the Royal Navy. His plan was to learn of the enemy's military might in order to fight another day. During the global conflict of the Seven Years War — generally known as the French and Indian War — he was stationed in the American theater.
    Afterward, he decided to settle in Pennsylvania where many of his kin had established themselves. His civic-mindedness quickly became apparent he helped to organize both the New Jersey and the Pennsylvania militias, led the Continental Army's Canadian expedition, and was elected Congress. His long years of training in the enemy camp was finally paying off.
    He was elected President of the Continental Congress in 1787 — and he served from February 2 of that year until January 21 of the next. Following his term of duty in the highest office in the land, he became the first Governor of the Northwest Territory and the founder of Cincinnati.
    Though he briefly supported the idea of creating a constitutional monarchy under the Stuarts' Bonnie Prince Charlie, he was a strident Anti-Federalist — believing that the proposed federal constitution would eventually allow for the intrusion of government into virtually every sphere and aspect of life. He even predicted that under the vastly expanded centralized power of the state the taxing powers of bureaucrats and other unelected officials would eventually confiscate as much as a quarter of the income of the citizens — a notion that seemed laughable at the time but that has proven to be ominously modest in light of our current governmental leviathan.
    St. Clair lived to see the hated English tyrants who destroyed his homeland defeated. But he despaired that his adopted home might actually create similar tyrannies and impose them upon themselves.


    Cyrus Griffin
    " 16th & Last President of the Continental Congress "
    " Virginia "
    ( January 22, 1788 - April 30, 1789 )
    " Cyrus Griffin "

    Date & Place of Birth
    July 16, 1748, Farnham, Richmond County, Virginia
    Passed Away
    December 14, 1810, Yorktown, Virginia
    Place of Burial
    Bruton Parish Episcopal Church, Williamsburg, Virginia
    Parents
    currently unknown
    Married
    currently unknown
    Children
    currently unknown

    Like Peyton Randolph, he was trained in London's Inner Temple to be a lawyer—and thus was counted among his nation's legal elite. Like so many other Virginians, he was an anti-federalist, though he eventually accepted the new Constitution with the promise of the Bill of Rights as a hedge against the establishment of an American monarchy — which still had a good deal of currency.
    The Articles of Confederation afforded such freedoms that he had become convinced that even with the incumbent loss of liberty, some new form of government would be required. A protégé of George Washington — having worked with him on several speculative land deals in the West — he was a reluctant supporter of the Constitutional ratifying process.
    It was during his term in the office of the Presidency of the Continental Congress — the last before the new national compact went into effect — that ratification was formalized and finalized. He served as the nation's chief executive from January 22, 1788 until George Washington's inauguration on April 30, 1789.

    Meeting dates of the Continental Congress of the United States

    Dates of Session

    September 5, 1774 - October 26, 1774
    May 10, 1775 - December 12, 1776
    December 20, 1776 - March 4, 1777
    March 5, 1777 - September 18, 1777
    September 27, 1777 - September 27, 1777
    September 30, 1777 - June 27, 1778
    July 2, 1778 - June 21, 1783
    June 30, 1783 - November 4, 1783
    November 26, 1783 - June 3, 1784
    November 1, 1784 - December 24, 1784
    January 11, 1785 - November 4, 1785
    November 7, 1785 - November 3, 1786
    November 6, 1786 - October 30, 1787
    November 5, 1787 - October 21, 1788
    November 3, 1788 - March 2, 1789

    The Electoral College elected George Washington unanimously and on April 30, 1789, President Washington delivered his first inaugural address to a joint session of Congress, assembled in Federal Hall in the nation's new capital, New York City.

  8. #8
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    Central North Carolina
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    Thanks for the info EMICT. Thats been a gray area for a lot of folks so thanks for posting that that. I have always recognized Washington as the first "official" president but so many folks have varying answers.
    Here's a fun fact: my home county of Randolph is named after Peyton Randolph.
    When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty. --Thomas Jefferson
    ________________

  9. #9
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    Jul 2007
    Location
    Southcentral Alaska
    Posts
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    I have to concede on this one I guess I relied to much hi school history. I guess my memory isn't so good after 40 years. Sorry guys.
    John Quincy Adams said, "Always vote for principle, though you may vote alone, and you may cherish the sweetest reflection that your vote is never lost."

    Wealth is not multiplied by division


    BOTH POLITICIANS AND DIAPERS NEED TO BE CHANGED OFTEN AND FOR THE SAME REASON

  10. #10
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    Good Stuff. And No, you won't learn this is High school!

    And what was the Continental Congress called before it was called that?

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